The symptoms described below are indicative of a nematode problem, but are not diagnostic because they could result from other causes as well. In general, aboveground symptoms include stunted, yellowed, chlorotic, and/or dead plants. Infected plants are likely to wilt earlier under temperature or moisture stress. Infestations may occur without causing any aboveground symptoms.Feeding by root knot nematode causes characteristic swellings, called galls, on roots. Galls caused by Meloidogyne chitwoodi are small and difficult to see. On heavily infested plants, egg masses appear as tiny round bumps on feeder roots. Meloidogyne hapla causes small distinct galls with proliferation of lateral roots around these galls. Meloidogyne incognita causes more pronounced galls. All three species of Meloidogyne and Pratylenchus penetrans cause bumps or warts on the surface of infected tubers. However, those caused by M. hapla are less distinct. Brown spots develop inside tubers, mostly in the outer 0.25 inch (6 mm), which are visible when a thin layer of tuber is peeled off. Lesion nematodes cause reddish brown lesions on the roots that turn black later. Stubby root nematodes cause numerous short and stunted (stubby) roots, and corky ringspot symptoms on tubers.
Presence among species